Georgoudis , A. Rosati and C. Animal production and natural resources utilisation in the Mediterranean mountain areas. Description Full-text Mediterranean inhabitants depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. Your Access Options. Log In If you have personal access to this content, log in with your username and password here: Email or username: Password: Remember me. Forgotten your password?
On the other hand, the programme has not been effective in preserving the natural resource base, promoting non-agricultural income-generating activities or promoting greater food security. The latter area requires more time to show the results of training and small investments made under the programme. With respect to improving access to rural financial services, the lack of implementation on the supply side did not limit the programme's success in economic development, but the lack of local microfinance alternatives may have contributed to the limited effectiveness of measures intended to increase food security.
Overall, the ratio of resources invested to results achieved has not been satisfactory owing to dispersion over too many sub components, implementing agency approval procedures poorly adapted to implementing multiple lines of activity, and the replacement of all programme team members in March During implementation, administrative expenses increased from 9 per cent of the initial budget to PRODEVER has made a noticeable contribution to the development of Las Verapaces in terms of communal social organization and productive development, as well as road infrastructure, with a consequent reduction in poverty.
The programme's gender approach was properly oriented towards creating conditions to reduce inequality between men and women in terms of participating in decision-making, access to resources, and the use and control of resources. Until the end of , the gender approach, with no budget of its own, was successfully incorporated into the programme through the determined efforts of the programme coordination unit from the outset.
In addition, a picture of the number of women participating in the programme was formed thanks to disaggregation by sex of most programme data, and a record of women's presence in most project documentation. Indigenous peoples. However, the intervention strategy addressed primarily their poverty rather than their ethnic condition.
It was assumed that no special strategies would be needed to include the indigenous population as beneficiaries, nor was there a perceived need to thematize their rights. The programme has placed priority on promoting grass-roots organizations in poor communities to enable them to move towards self-management, empowering their capacity to manage projects and generate resources.
Under the local capacity-building component, 35 organizations of rated were deemed consolidated in Among them are 27 producers' associations for commercial crops coffee, cardamom, cacao, fruit , whose sustainability will depend on future demand for their products. Public and private institutions in the area of associations is still weak municipalities have low resource levels and planning capacities, vested interests have a strong influence, etc.
PRODEVER faced constraints in providing adequate support: FONAPAZ project planning and implementation procedures, subject to state guidelines, led to discontinuity and at times poor timing of support, undermining the sustainability of their impact on production lines and food security. In view of the baseline situation in Las Verapaces, promoting a participatory approach was innovative for the area.
Moreover, new technologies and production alternatives were introduced fruit, tourism , and more advanced linkages were established for product commercialization. Performance by actors. IFAD has made a substantial investment in defining the programme and has monitored its implementation closely, visiting the programme area at least twice a year. In addition, the new Government declared rural development one of its main priorities in January , creating the Rural Development Council and a coordinating agency represented by the National Rural Development Programme.
The Government has fulfilled its financial obligations. Following a prolonged preparation process, FONAPAZ competitively recruited a programme management and team with sound professional skills and kept it in place following the change in government in UNOPS was contracted as a cooperating institution to monitor compliance with the loan agreement.
In general, it performed satisfactorily. Project performance a. When PRODEVER was designed, the baseline situation presented a series of challenges to promoting development: a recent history of civil war with a significant impact on Las Verapaces and serious human rights violations, particularly against women; a population composed of different ethnic groups speaking different languages, with minimal relations among them; land distribution characterized by large estates in the hands of latifundistas or large landowners, with campesinos relegated to marginal land; power structures dominated by local caudillos; the lack of a central State presence; fledgling municipalities; communities isolated by inadequate infrastructure and services; informal markets and financial services; mass migration by young people; and a high incidence of poverty.
Clearly, this situation entailed a series of risks in terms of design and implementation if the desired results were to be achieved, particularly in identifying which issues should be included in the programme. Arriving at a design that enables implementers to respond to the complexity of such a situation means coming as close as possible to the actual circumstances in communities. PRODEVER's implementation has shown that in this situation, design by external missions has limitations , and that a presence is needed for a longer period to determine what is feasible to carry out.
This decision has been shown to be correct, since one component rural financial services and aspects of another land titling were not implemented, and new elements were included such as literacy, reproductive health, food security projects and vocational training. IFAD required a clear programme focus and agreed to a design distinguishing among six different target groups. Following an initial study, the management defined poverty characteristics and levels in the communities to be served and selected the communities accordingly based on the nature of the projects implemented.
However, no record was kept of the characteristics of the families and persons participating in the projects. As a result, given the stratification of results, it is not possible to accurately state to what extent each of the six target groups have benefited. The design included two kinds of target populations : those with the means of production and potential for productive self-development, and those living in extreme poverty without such resources.
PRODEVER has demonstrated that the most visible results were achieved in the segment of landowning families, who have plantations of perennial crops such as coffee, cardamom or fruit banana, citrus , and those who were able to establish a permanent relationship with an exporter to sell vegetables. On the other hand, in order to reach target groups in the second category, the management designed projects not originally included, in particular in the food security sector. For this more numerous second segment, however, a significantly longer time is needed to cross the poverty line.
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Serving these different target populations calls for different approaches, methods and measures. These are not easily combined, and the programme has not differentiated clearly among them. Additionally, the evaluation points up the fact that building local capacities requires an extended period of support. The programme results show that of the organizations supported since , 35 were deemed to have reached a level of development that merited rating them as "consolidated institutions". The majority of those remaining need continued support to achieve that status.
The programme objectives set initially were achieved in part, with notable progress made on organization, economic development, gender and road infrastructure. Substantial investments were made in improving conditions of access to markets for rural producers, such as roads and agro-industrial infrastructure, and much work was done on market access.
An increasing economic dynamic was observed in Las Verapaces during programme implementation, to which PRODEVER made a substantial contribution in the form of training, technical assistance and investment in production and roads. Poverty was reduced by 5 per cent of the target population, coinciding with the national trend announced by the Government at the end of The proposal to use the flexible lending mechanism was a sound one, as it allowed for the programme to be adapted on the basis of achievements and experience. However, this flexibility — indispensable for a programme such as PRODEVER — not only brought benefits in terms of adapting the programme to better achieve its objectives, but also entailed risks in terms of its evolution and the monitoring of implementation.
In fact, the logical framework, which was to be used to measure progress, was applicable only in part and required significant changes to reflect the programme realities see mid-term review recommendations. Clearly, such a situation calls for proper monitoring by those responsible for implementation. Promoting rural development calls for interventions at various levels to cultivate related strategy and policy, linked to the actual realities in the field, by facilitating inter-project exchanges.
In addition, it facilitated an exchange of learning and experience between IFAD projects and other agencies operating in the country and elsewhere in Central America. In view of the complexity of implementing a programme such as PRODEVER, it was very important to recruit a programme management and team of good professional calibre, to define and implement the proper entry and execution strategy to achieve the programme objective.
In addition, the team needed to acquire the knowledge to design and implement effective projects that would increasingly be adapted to needs. FONAPAZ selected the appropriate management at the programme's outset, which applied sound judgment in setting up the team and selecting co-implementers.
In addition, the fact that this team remained in charge of the programme from the outset until the end of was one of the main reasons for its good performance. Continuity was key to the results achieved. The change in the team at the beginning of interrupted the learning curve, and a new team had to begin again to establish relationships with the communities, earn credibility, and acquire the knowledge to provide continued support.
During the programme's implementation, significant changes occurred in the institutional framework , when legislation on decentralizing the State was passed, assigning a crucial role to municipalities as new agents of development. Taking advantage of this new environment in which public and private structures are emerging, PRODEVER has attempted to support the integration of its activities into municipal development plans, in some municipalities more successfully than in others.
Through this process, opportunities for citizen participation have opened up and are gradually being employed. In this context, the programme sought out new ways of encouraging development in Las Verapaces.
tasumimisp.tk The participatory approach was innovative for the Las Verapaces area, as was the initial rating of communities by development level to facilitate selection on the basis of poverty and potential. At the same time, new technologies were introduced to improve the production and productivity of commercial crops. Opportunities were created for a sustainable increase in income by linking producers' associations with processing plants and with more advanced links in the market chain. It is recommended that consideration be given to modifying the preparation of future programmes similar to PRODEVER by giving more of a voice to stakeholders active in the programme area.
It is recommended that, from the outset, different approaches and methods be identified to support different types of target groups: those who have the potential to lift themselves out of poverty through economic investments, and those living in extreme poverty without resources who need social assistance, at least initially. Focusing attention on both types of target groups risks lowering efficiency and effectiveness in both cases. Accordingly, it is recommended that greater conceptual clarity be applied in defining and combining modalities responsive to the two categories and their different levels of resources to help them.
It is recommended that IFAD's loan agreements include a due diligence requirement with respect to the executing capacity of the implementing agency, evaluating requirements in terms of governance and administrative guidelines to be met by future projects and their degree of compliance to ensure smooth and successful implementation.